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Chemistry Models

A&P 1

Bohr models


Bohr model of the helium (He) atom.  He has two protons in the nucleus and two electrons in its single energy level.



periodic chart

This (partial) periodic chart shows incomplete Bohr models (no nucleus). Here, the energy levels are called "shells." 



Electron Cloud Model

helium electron cloud animation

The electron cloud model shows electrons moving in a cloud around the nucleus.


hydrogen electron cloud animation

In this covalent bond, two H atoms "share" their single electrons, to form a pair of shared electrons.



Water Molecule

water models

Three models of a water molecule (polar). From left: stick (structural) model, Bohr model, space-filling (cloud) model.



Molecules in Water (Solution)

glucose in solution

In this space-filling model, glucose (center molecule) is a polar molecule with unequal sharing of electrons.  It dissolves easily in water because the positive regions of a water molecule are attracted to glucose's negative regions and the negative regions of a water molecule are attracted to glucose's positive regions --so they "get along." The dashed lines represent hydrogen bonds, which which are weak electrochemical attractions that form and reform in a liquid solution.



sodium in waterchloride in water

Ions, too, "get along" with water just fine!

Click on each image to enlarge



Glucose Molecule

glucose structural  modelglucose space filling model

Two models of a glucose molecule: structural and space-filling.



Phospholipid Molecules

phospholipid structural modelphospholipid simple model

Left: Structural model of a phospholipid

Right: Stick figure of a phospholipid



phospholipid bilayer

Phospholipid bilayer (a simple model)



modern bilayer model

Phospholipid bilayer (a current detailed model)

Click image to enlarge


Cholesterol Molecule

cholesterol structural model

Cholesterol (its steroid "core" or nucleus is highlighted)


Tertiary Protein

hemoglobin beta chain (tertiary protein)

Computer (ribbon) model of a tertiary protein (hemoglobin beta unit)

Click image to enlarge


Quaternary Protein

Hemoglobin quaternary protein (tetramer)

Computer (ribbon) model of a quaternary protein (hemoglobin)

 Check out this odd-shaped protein: click here


Allosteric Effect

allosteric effect animation

The allosteric effect in enzyme action.



DNA Molecule

DNA structural model

DNA molecule (left) is made up of nucleotides. Each DNA nucleotide is a sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate, and a base (A, C, T, or G).

adenine structural model

Adenine, represented as simply "A" in the DNA model above, actually looks something like this.

DNA rotating animation

Animated, simplified space-filling model of DNA shows the "twisted ladder" shape of the double helix.


ATP Molecule

ATP structural model

ATP (adenine triphosphate) is a modified adenine-containing nucleotide. (see model of adenine above)


This page updated on 23-sep-16